Consumer defense is a vital element of any national law that intends to protect the interests of consumers and users. It is a right that demands an institutional framework that enables its implementation and monitoring by the State, so that all agents may participate in the promotion and execution of initiatives related to it.
The article presents a panorama of the origins and evolution of consumer protection in Peru, from the distant norm of the 1979 Constitution that concisely declared the interest of the State in promoting consumer defence until the current protective legal regime. The main regulatory influences that shaped the 2010 Consumer Protection and Defence Code are highlighted, especially those from European regulation in relation to sales to consumers (defective products) and the disciplining of abusive clauses, to which is added a reference to the protection of personal data.
Consumer protection laws deal with a wide variety of issues, including unfair and deceptive advertising, warranties, consumer fraud, and credit card debt collection practices. These laws are a major part of the legal landscape and affect all consumers and businesses. This is why it is essential to understand and stay up-to-date on the latest changes in consumer protection laws. This will help you better serve your clients or represent businesses, advertisers, or consumers with greater expertise and authority.
In the United States, the Federal Trade Commission is charged with enforcing consumer protection laws and regulating unfair and deceptive business practices. The FTC works to educate consumers about protecting themselves from scams, as well as to pursue litigation against businesses that engage in deceptive practices.
The Consumer Protection and Enforcement Division (CPED) investigates complaints about utility services and helps resolve them. CPED also sets and enforces rules and regulations for utility companies. CPED receives hundreds of calls each month from customers who believe they are being overcharged for their service. In addition, CPED investigates reports of tampering with meters, theft of services, and utilities’ failure to respond to customer concerns.
Companies that produce or distribute consumer staples are considered to be defensive stocks, as their goods are essential to people’s daily lives and they therefore generate steady cash flow regardless of economic conditions. These include utility companies, beverage and hygiene product producers, as well as manufacturers of some household items. They generally outperform nondefensive or consumer cyclical stocks that sell discretionary goods in weak economies and underperform in strong ones.
Unilever PLC (UL) is a consumer defensive stock that is positioned to benefit from a slowing economy. It produces or distributes goods that people buy as a matter of necessity and they therefore tend to purchase the same during weak economies. These are generally referred to as consumer staples and include food, beverages, hygiene products, tobacco and some household items.
UL offers a solid business model that allows it to deliver consistent earnings over the long term and grow its dividend payouts to investors. However, it’s important to keep in mind that UL is facing competition from rivals such as Johnson & Johnson (JNJ). Therefore, you should do your homework before making an investment decision.